Draw a straight line, and then continue it for the same length but deflected by an angle. If you continue doing this you will eventually return to roughly where you started, having drawn out an approximation to a circle. But what happens if you increase the angle of deflection by a fixed amount at each step? The curve will spiral in on itself as the deflection increases, and then spiral out when the deflection exceeds a half-turn. These spiral flourishes are called Euler spirals. [code]
Simulations back up theory that Universe is a hologram
A ten-dimensional theory of gravity makes the same predictions as standard quantum physics in fewer dimensions.
A team of physicists has provided some of the clearest evidence yet that our Universe could be just one big projection.
In 1997, theoretical physicist Juan Maldacena proposed1 that an audacious model of the Universe in which gravity arises from infinitesimally thin, vibrating strings could be reinterpreted in terms of well-established physics. The mathematically intricate world of strings, which exist in nine dimensions of space plus one of time, would be merely a hologram: the real action would play out in a simpler, flatter cosmos where there is no gravity.
Scientists using the Hubble Space Telescope have found plumes of water vapor shooting off the southern pole of Europa, an ice-covered moon of Jupiter that is believed to have an underground ocean. Read more